Land that has been purchased, vested, reserved for or leased on behalf of an Aboriginal land trust. Generally freehold, but may be leased or reserved on behalf of an Aboriginal land trust. Ownership rights and privileges under Indigenous freehold vary with jurisdiction legislation. 

A voluntary agreement between a native title group and others about the use of land and waters. 

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons. They are the people who have and maintain strong connection to their Country, values, cultural practices and distinct social systems. ‘Indigenous’ is a term extensively used throughout Australia when referring to the Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, and related topics.  

This report uses the word Indigenous; however, we acknowledge that this may not be the preferred term for all Australia’s First Nations’ people and we apologise for any offence it may cause. In the text, we have used the words ‘Indigenous’ and ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander’ and have also identified Indigenous people and Country by their  Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander clan or language name. 

See also Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and First Nations. 

An area governed by formal or informal rules and institutions that determine access to, and control over, land and natural resources. 

Practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage. Intangible cultural heritage is manifested in oral traditions and expressions, and language; the performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe; and traditional craftsmanship (after the UNESCO 2003 Convention definition). 

A set of 85 bioregions in Australia, used as the basis for the National Reserve System’s planning framework to identify land for conservation. 

Non-native plants or animals that have adverse environmental or economic effects on the regions they invade; species that dominate a region due to loss of natural predators or controls.