The Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment encourages the dissemination and exchange of information provided on this site on an open and reusable basis.

The Commonwealth of Australia owns the copyright in all material produced by the Department.

Australia State of the Environment 2021 is licenced by the Commonwealth of Australia for use under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence with the exception of the Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the logo of the agency responsible for publishing the report and some content supplied by third parties. For licence conditions see

The Commonwealth of Australia has made all reasonable efforts to identify and attribute content supplied by third parties that is not licensed for under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Further information on the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment’s copyright policy is available at

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The views and opinions expressed on this site are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect those of the Australian Government, the Minister for the Environment or contributors.

Although reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct, the Commonwealth does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents, and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of this site.

This site may contain images, names, or references, to deceased Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people.

Further information is available from the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment website at