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Figure 1 (a) Traffic volume and (b) CO concentration across metropolitan Adelaide, March–July 2020
Figure 2 CO, NOx and PM2.5 levels during the initial peak COVID-19 restrictions in Adelaide compared with the previous 2015–19 average and the rest of 2020

CO = carbon monoxide; µg/m3 = microgram per cubic metre; NOx = nitrogen oxides; PM2.5 = fine particulate matter; ppm = parts per million

Source: South Australian Environment Protection Authority

Figure 3 (a) Fifteen-day running mean total column NO2 on 10 April 2020, (b) as an average of the same time across 2015–19 and (c) as the difference between the 2 plots

cm2 = square centimetre; NO2 = nitrogen dioxide

Source: NASA Aura OMI satellite, originally published in Air Quality and Climate Change, publication of the Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand

Figure 4 NO2 and ozone levels during the peak COVID-19 restrictions across all Melbourne air quality stations compared with the previous 2015–19 average for the same period

NO2 = nitrogen dioxide; ppb = parts per billion

Note: Solid line represents the mean; shaded area represents the data range.

Source: Environment Protection Authority Victoria, originally published in Air Quality and Climate Change, publication of the Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand

Figure 5 Years of life lost attributed to poor air quality in Australia
Figure 6 Population-weighted PM2.5 levels in SA2 regions across Australia

µg/m3 = microgram per cubic metre; PM2.5 = fine particulate matter; SA2 = Statistical Area Level 2

Note: The maps are constructed from annual averaged 2015–18 PM2.5 data (Knibbs 2020) and do not include the summer 2019–20 bushfire period. SA2 data are from ABS (2015).

Source: Christy Geromboux, Centre for Air pollution, Energy and Health Research data platform

Figure 7 Flow of pollutants through the atmosphere, from emission sources to transport, chemical transformation and deposition to the environment
Figure 8 GEOS-5 simulation focused on Australia, at a 10 km resolution. Dust (red) is lifted from the interior, sea salt (blue) swirls inside cyclones, smoke (green) rises from fires, and sulfate particles (white) stream from volcanoes and fossil fuel emissions
Figure 9 Background CO levels from satellite measurements of the Australian average and surface measurements at Kennaook/Cape Grim, Tasmania, 2002–20

CO = carbon monoxide; ppb = parts per billion

Sources: Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere satellite data: Rebecca Buchholz, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA; Cape Grim data: Ray Langenfelds and Paul Krummel, CSIRO

Figure 10 Annual average lead levels at 2 locations in Port Pirie (South Australia), and at Mount Isa and the port at Townsville (Queensland), 2002–19