2021 Limited confidence Indigenous assessment Assessments of beaches and shorelines vary between good and poor, but all are deteriorating due to sea level rise and local factors related to human use of the coast. Ocean beaches are currently stable in position and are in relatively good condition away from urban centres, but beaches in urbanised estuaries and bays are exposed to numerous human pressures. Rocky shorelines, mudflats and sandbars are vulnerable to many threats, but monitoring of those habitats is rare. The Indigenous assessments for the state of beaches and shorelines found that 2 assets are good and 2 are poor, and that the trend is unclear for 2 assets and stable for 2. Local government assessments (see Approach) show that the condition of beaches and shorelines varies around Australia, but with no clear north–south or east–west pattern. Some shorelines are in worse condition near capital cities. Related to United Nations Sustainable Development Goal targets 14.2, 15.1, 15.5 Legend How was this assessment made For more information, go toBeaches and shorelines Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on Linkedin Share this link Assessment Ocean beaches and sand dunes 2021 Adequate confidence 2016 Most beaches are in a dynamic but stable position with little change in decadal-scale behaviour. They are exposed to extreme wave events that can damage legacy planning infrastructure, and are vulnerable to sea level rise. The Indigenous assessment for some regional areas was poor, with an unclear trend. Assessment Beaches in estuaries and bays 2021 Limited confidence Urban beaches in estuaries and bays continue to be subject to increased pressures including engineering interventions, urbanisation and sea level rise. The Indigenous assessment for some regional areas was poor, with an unclear trend. Assessment Rocky shoreline 2021 Limited confidence 2016 Data are generally sparse, but heatwaves, harvesting, trampling, deteriorating water quality, urban development and sea level rise all threaten this habitat. The Indigenous assessment for some regional areas was good, with a stable trend. Assessment Mudflats and sandbars 2021 Low confidence 2016 Sea level rise, river regulation and urbanisation are increasing pressures on mudflats and sandflats. However, studies documenting the resultant ecosystem change are lacking. The Indigenous assessment for some local areas was good, with a stable trend.