ABARES (Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences) (2021). Snapshot of Australian agriculture 2021, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra,

Abram NJ, Henley BJ, Sen Gupta A, Lippmann TJR, Clarke H, Dowdy AJ et al. (2021). Connections of climate change and variability to large and extreme forest fires in southeast Australia. Communications Earth and Environment 2:8.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2021). Agricultural commodities, Australia, ABS, Canberra,

ACF (Australian Conservation Foundation) (2020). The extinction crisis in Australia’s cities and towns, ACF, Melbourne.

ACT Scientific Committee (Australian Capital Territory Scientific Committee) (2020). Nature conservation threatened native species list 2020, ACT Government, Canberra,

ALA (Atlas of Living Australia) (n.d.). Indigenous ecological knowledge, ALA, Canberra,

Alfonzetti M, Rivers MC, Auld TD, Le Breton T, Cooney T, Stuart S, Zimmer H, Makinson R, Wilkins K, Delgado E, Dimitrova N & Gallagher RV (2020). Shortfalls in extinction risk assessments for plants. Australian Journal of Botany 68(6):466–471.

Algar D, Johnston M, O’Donoghue M & Quinn J (2015). What is in the pipeline? Eradicat®, Curiosity® and other tools. In: Tracey J, Lane C, Fleming P, Dickman C, Quinn J, Buckmaster T & McMahon S (eds), 2015 National Feral Cat Management Workshop Proceedings, Canberra, 21–22 April 2015, Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra, 80–84.

Allbrook M, Woolagoodja D, Jebb MA & Bornman J (2017). Barddabardda Wodjenangorddee: we’re telling all of you, Fremantle Press, Perth.

Allek A, Assis AS, Eiras N, Amaral TP, Williams B, Butt N, Renwick AR, Bennett JR & Beyer HL (2018). The threats endangering Australia’s at-risk fauna. Biological Conservation 222:172–179.

ANAO (Australian National Audit Office) (2018). Funding models for threatened species management, ANAO report no. 32 2017–18, performance audit in the Department of the Environment and Energy, ANAO, Canberra.

ANAO (Australian National Audit Office) (2020). Referrals, assessments and approvals of controlled actions under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, Auditor-General report no. 47 2019–20, performance audit in the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, ANAO, Canberra.

Andersen AN (2021). Faunal responses to fire in Australian tropical savannas: insights from field experiments and their lessons for conservation management. Diversity and Distributions 27(5):828–843.

Anderson BM, Thiele KR & Barrett MD (2017). A revision of the Triodia basedowii species complex and close relatives (Poaceae: Chloridoideae). Australian Systematic Botany 30(3):197–229.

Ansell J, Evans J, Adjumarllarl Rangers, Arafura Swamp Rangers, Djelk Rangers, Jawoyn Rangers, Mimal Rangers, Numbulwar Numburindi Rangers, Warddeken Rangers, Yirralka Rangers & Yugul Mangi Rangers (2020). Contemporary Aboriginal savanna burning projects in Arnhem Land: a regional description and analysis of the fire management aspirations of Traditional Owners. International Journal of Wildland Fire 29(5):371–385.

ANZECC/MCFFA National Forest Policy Statement Implementation Sub-Committee (Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council & Ministerial Council on Forestry, Fisheries and Aquaculture) (1997). Nationally agreed criteria for the establishment of a comprehensive, adequate and representative reserve system for forests in Australia, ANZECC & MCFFA, Canberra.

Archibald CL, Barnes MD, Tulloch AIT, Fitzsimons JA, Morrison TH, Mills M & Rhodes JR (2020). Differences among protected area governance types matter for conserving vegetation communities at risk of loss and fragmentation. Biological Conservation 247:108533.

Arneth A, Shin YJ, Leadley P, Rondinini C, Bukvareva E, Kolb M, Midgley GF, Oberdorff T, Palomo I & Saito O (2020). Post-2020 biodiversity targets need to embrace climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117(49):30882–30891.

Arnold JP, Murphy MV, Didham RK & Houston TF (2019). Rediscovery of the ‘extinct’ bee Hesperocolletes douglasi Michener, 1965 (Colletidae: Colletinae: Paracolletini) in Western Australia and first description of the female. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(3):13310–13319.

ATSE (2017). Addressing the environmental impacts of Australian mining’s past and future, action statement, ATSE, Melbourne.

Australian Government Inspector-General of Biosecurity (2019). Environmental biosecurity risk management in Australia, review report no. 2018–19/04, Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Canberra.

Australian Rangeland Society (2019). Australian Rangeland Society, Australian Rangeland Society, Perth,

Australian Seed Bank Partnership (2019). Annual report 2018–19, prepared by Wrigley D, Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens Incorporated, Canberra.


Barnes R, Holcombe S & Parmenter J (2020). Indigenous groups, land rehabilitation and mine closure: exploring the Australian terrain, Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Barr LM, Watson JEM, Possingham HP, Iwamura T & Fuller RA (2016). Progress in improving the protection of species and habitats in Australia. Biological Conservation 200:184–191.

Barrett S & Yates CJ (2015). Risks to a mountain summit ecosystem with endemic biota in southwestern Australia. Austral Ecology 40(4):423–432.

Beatty SJ, Ramsay A, Pinder AM & Morgan DL (2020). Reservoirs act as footholds for an invasive freshwater crayfish. Pacific Conservation Biology 26(1):78–83.

Bennett JM, McBratney A, Field D, Kidd D, Stockmann U, Liddicoat C & Grover S (2019). Soil security for Australia. Sustainability 11(12):3416.

Beranek CT, Roff A, Denholm B, Howell LG & Witt RR (2021). Trialling a real-time drone detection and validation protocol for the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Australian Mammalogy 43(2):260–264.

Bergstrom DM, Wienecke BC, van den Hoff J, Hughes L, Lindenmayer DB, Ainsworth TD et al. (2021). Combating ecosystem collapse from the tropics to the Antarctic. Global Change Biology 27(9):1692–1703.

Berthon K, Esperon-Rodriguez M, Beaumont LJ, Carnegie AJ & Leishman MR (2018). Assessment and prioritisation of plant species at risk from myrtle rust (Austropuccinia psidii) under current and future climates in Australia. Biological Conservation 218:154–162.

Bino G, Kingsford RT & Brandis K (2016). Australia’s wetlands – learning from the past to manage for the future. Pacific Conservation Biology 22(2):116–129.

Blicharska M, Smithers RJ, Mikusiński G, Rönnbäck P, Harrison PA, Nilsson M & Sutherland WJ (2019). Biodiversity’s contributions to sustainable development. Nature Sustainability 2(12):1083–1093.

Boer MM, Resco de Dios V & Bradstock RA (2020). Unprecedented burn area of Australian mega forest fires. Nature Climate Change 10(3):171–172.

BOM & CSIRO (Bureau of Meteorology & Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) (2020). State of the climate, CSIRO, Canberra.

Bond C & Kelly L (2020). Returning land to country: Indigenous engagement in mined land closure and rehabilitation. Australian Journal of Management 46(1):174–192.

Bouma A, Kuchling G, Zhai SY & Mitchell N (2020). Assisted colonisation trials for the western swamp turtle show that juveniles can grow in cooler and wetter climates. Endangered Species Research 43:75–88.

Braby MF & Williams MR (2016). Biosystematics and conservation biology: critical scientific disciplines for the management of insect biological diversity. Austral Entomology 55(1):1–17.

Braby MF (2019). Are insects and other invertebrates in decline in Australia? Austral Entomology 58(3):471–477.

Bradby K, Wallace KJ, Cross AT, Flies EJ, Witehira C, Keesing A, Dudley T, Breed MF, Howling G, Weinstein P & Aronson J (2021). Four Islands EcoHealth Network: an Australasian initiative building synergies between the restoration of ecosystems and human health. Restoration Ecology 29(4):e13382.

Bradshaw CJA, Hoskins AJ, Haubrock PJ, Cuthbert RN, Diagne C, Leroy B, Andrews L, Page B, Cassey P, Sheppard AW & Courchamp F (2021). Detailed assessment of the reported economic costs of invasive species in Australia. NeoBiota 67:511–550.

Bradstock R, Bedward M & Cohn J (2006). The modelled effects of differing fire management strategies on the conifer Callitris verrucosa within semi‐arid mallee vegetation in Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 43(2):281–292.

Broadhurst L & Coates D (2017). Plant conservation in Australia: current directions and future challenges. Plant Diversity 39(6):348–356.

Brown GK & Bostock PD (2020). Introduction to the census of the Queensland flora 2020, Queensland Herbarium, Department of Environment and Science, Brisbane.

Bruyère C, Holland G, Prein A, Done J, Buckley B, Chan P, Leplastrier M & Dyer A (2019). Severe weather in a changing climate, Insurance Australia Group & US National Center for Atmospheric Research, Sydney.


Campbell A, Alexandra J & Curtis D (2017). Reflections on four decades of land restoration in Australia. The Rangeland Journal 39(6):405–416.

CAPAD (Collaborative Australian Protected Areas Database) (2021). Terrestrial CAPAD 2020 national summary, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra,

Capon S, Castley G, Palmer G, Linke S, Piccolo R, Henderseon E, Allely-Ferme E, Richmond S & Huijbers C (2020). A long-term monitoring framework for the Regional Land Partnerships Program stage 2: final report, Griffith University, Brisbane.

Capon S, Chambers J, Barmuta L, Bino G, Bond N, Costelloe J et al. (2017). National climate change adaptation research plan for freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity, update 2017, National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility, Gold Coast.

Cassis G, Laffan SW & Ebach MC (2017). Biodiversity and bioregionalisation perspectives on the historical biogeography of Australia. In: Ebach MC (ed), Handbook of Australasian biogeography, CRC Press, Florida, 11–26.

Castaño-Sánchez A, Hose GC & Reboleira ASPS (2020). Ecotoxicological effects of anthropogenic stressors in subterranean organisms: a review. Chemosphere 244:125422.

CEPF (Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund) (2021). Explore the biodiversity hotspots, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia,

Chambers B, Dunlop J & Wayne A (2020). Felixer™ grooming trap non-target safety trial: numbats, Government of Western Australia Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Perth.

Chapple DG, Tingley R, Mitchell NJ, Macdonald SL, Keogh JS, Shea GM, Bowles P, Cox NA & Woinarski JCZ (2019). The action plan for Australian lizards and snakes 2017, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Chen Y, Colloff MJ, Lukasiewicz A & Pittock J (2020). A trickle, not a flood: environmental watering in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 72(5):601–619.

Chilcott S, Freeman R, Davies PE, Crook DA, Fulton W, Hamr P, Jarvis D & Sanger AC (2013). Extinct habitat, extant species: lessons learned from conservation recovery actions for the Pedder galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis) in south-west Tasmania, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 64(9):864–873.

Claramunt AMA, White NE, Bunce M, O’Connell M, Bullen RD & Mawson PR (2019). Determination of the diet of the ghost bat (Macroderma gigas) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia from dried prey remains and DNA metabarcoding. Australian Journal of Zoology 66(3):195–200.

Clarke MF, Kelly LT, Avitabile SC, Benshemesh J, Callister KE, Driscoll DA et al. (2021). Fire and its interactions with other drivers shape a distinctive, semi-arid ‘mallee’ ecosystem. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9:647557.

Clemens R, Driessen J & Ehmke G (2019). Australian bird index phase 2 – developing waterbird indices for national reporting, unpublished report for the Australian Government Department of Environment and Energy, BirdLife Australia, Melbourne.

Clements HS, Kearney SG & Cook CN (2018). Moving from representation to persistence: the capacity of Australia’s national reserve system to support viable populations of mammals. Diversity and Distributions 24(9):1231–1241.

Coates-Marnane J, Pausina S, Burton J, Haynes D, Oudyn F & Olley J (2021). A record of diatom community response to catchment land-use change in Moreton Bay, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 72(6):823–837.

Colloff M, Hillman T, Kingsford R, Pittock J, Rocheta E, Sheldon F & Steinfeld C (2020). Assessment of river flows in the Murray–Darling Basin: observed versus expected flows under the Basin Plan 2012–2019, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Sydney.

Commander LE, Coates D, Broadhurst L, Offord CA, Makinson RO & Matthes M (2018). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia, 3rd edn, Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Canberra.

Conradie SR, Woodborne SM, Wolf BO, Pessato A, Mariette MM & McKechnie AE (2020). Avian mortality risk during heat waves will increase greatly in arid Australia during the 21st century. Conservation Physiology 8:coaa048.

Corlett RT, Primack RB, Devictor V, Maas B, Goswami VR, Bates AE, Koh LP, Regan TJ, Loyola R, Pakeman RJ, Cumming GS, Pidgeon A, Johns D & Roth R (2020). Impacts of the coronavirus pandemic on biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 246:108571.

Cosier P, Flannery T, Harding R, Hillman T, Hughes L, Karoly D et al. (2017). Review of water reform in the Murray–Darling Basin, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Sydney.

Cowan M, Moro D, Anderson H, Angus J, Garretson S & Morris K (2020). Aerial baiting for feral cats is unlikely to affect survivorship of northern quolls in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Wildlife Research 47(8):589–598.

Cowie ID, Cuff NJ, Lewis DL & Jobson P (2017). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Territory, Northern Territory Herbarium, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Palmerston.

Cox DTC, Shanahan DF, Hudson HL, Plummer KE, Siriwardena GM, Fuller RA, Anderson K, Hancock S & Gaston KJ (2017). Doses of neighborhood nature: the benefits for mental health of living with nature. BioScience 67(2):147–155.

Craik W (2018). Review of interactions between the EPBC Act and the agriculture sector, report prepared for the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, Aither, Melbourne.

Cranney K (2019). Magpie geese return with help from ethical AI and Indigenous Knowledge, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra,

Critterpedia (2021). Critterpedia, Critterpedia, Brisbane,


Dade MC, Pauli N & Mitchell NJ (2014). Mapping a new future: using spatial multiple criteria analysis to identify novel habitats for assisted colonization of endangered species. Animal Conservation 17(Suppl 1):4–17.

Daszak P, Amuasi J, das Neves CG, Haymen D, Kuiken T, Roche B et al. (2020). Workshop report on biodiversity and pandemics, Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Secretariat, Bonn, Germany.

Davies HF, Maier SW & Murphy BP (2020). Feral cats are more abundant under severe disturbance regimes in an Australian tropical savanna. Wildlife Research 47(8):624–632.

Davis NE, Bennett A, Forsyth DM, Bowman DM, Lefroy EC, Wood SW, Woolnough AP, West P, Hampton JO & Johnson CN (2016). A systematic review of the impacts and management of introduced deer (family Cervidae) in Australia. Wildlife Research 43(6):515–532.

Davis RA & Watson DM (2018). Vagrants as vanguards of range shifts in a dynamic world. Biological Conservation 224:238–241.

DAWE (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) (2020a). Annual report 2019–20, DAWE, Canberra.

DAWE (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) (2020b). Threatened ecological communities that occur in areas affected by bushfires in southern and eastern Australia from 1 July 2019 and 11 February 2020 (dataset), DAWE, Canberra,

DAWE (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) (2021a). National Environmental Science Program, DAWE, Canberra,

DAWE (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) (2021b). Environment Restoration Fund, DAWE, Canberra,

DAWE (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) (2021c). Communities Environment Program, DAWE, Canberra,

DAWE (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) (2021d). 20 Million Trees Program, DAWE, Canberra,

DAWE (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) (2021e). Reef 2050 Plan – implementation strategy, DAWE, Canberra,

DAWE (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) (2021f). The Reef 2050 Plan, DAWE, Canberra,

Day K, Campbell H, Fisher A, Gibb K, Hill B, Rose A & Jarman SN (2019). Development and validation of an environmental DNA test for the endangered Gouldian finch. Endangered Species Research 40:171–182.

DEE (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy) (2016). Background document to the Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits, DEE, Canberra.

Delgado-Baquerizo M, Reich PB, Trivedi C, Eldridge DJ, Abades S, Alfaro FD et al. (2020). Multiple elements of soil biodiversity drive ecosystem functions across biomes. Nature Ecology and Evolution 4(2):210–220.

Deloitte Access Economics (2020). Cost benefit analysis of a mission to discover and document Australia’s species, report prepared for the Australian Academy of Science, Deloitte Access Economics, Perth.

DELWP (State Government of Victoria Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning) (2021). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act Threatened List, DELWP, Melbourne,

DES (Queensland Government Department of Environment and Science) (2021). Threatened species listing report (dataset), DES, Brisbane,

Díaz S, Pascual U, Stenseke M, Martín-López B, Watson RT, Molnár Z, Hill R, Chan KMA, Baste IA & Brauman KA (2018). Assessing nature’s contributions to people. Science 359(6373):270–272.

DISER (Australian Government Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources) (2021). Australian energy update 2021, Australian Energy Statistics, DISER, Canberra.

Dodd AJ, Burgman MA, McCarthy MA & Ainsworth N (2015). The changing patterns of plant naturalization in Australia. Diversity and Distributions 21(9):1038–1050.

Doherty TS, Hays GC & Driscoll DA (2021). Human disturbance causes widespread disruption of animal movement. Nature Ecology and Evolution 5(4):513–519.

Donnellan A (2020). Critterpedia: taking the guesswork out of animal spotting, CSIROscope, Canberra,

Dormontt EE, van Dijk K, Bell KL, Biffin E, Breed MF, Byrne M, Caddy-Retalic S, Encinas-Viso F, Nevill PG, Shapcott A, Young JM, Waycott M & Lowe AJ (2018). Advancing DNA barcoding and metabarcoding applications for plants requires systematic analysis of herbarium collections – an Australian perspective. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6:134.

Duke NC, Kovacs JM, Griffiths AD, Preece L, Hill DJE, van Oosterzee P, Mackenzie J, Morning HS & Burrows D (2017). Large-scale dieback of mangroves in Australia’s Gulf of Carpentaria: a severe ecosystem response, coincidental with an unusually extreme weather event. Marine and Freshwater Research 68(10):1816–1829.

Dunlop J, Birch N, Davie H, Nelson J & Read J (2019). Felixer™ feral cat grooming trap trials in the presence of northern quolls, Government of Western Australia Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Perth.


de Salas MF & Baker ML (2019). A census of the vascular plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island, Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart.


eFloraSA Electronic Flora of South Australia (online database) (2021). Census of South Australian plants, algae and fungi, State Herbarium of South Australia, Department for Environment and Water, Adelaide,


Ens EJ, Daniels C, Nelson E, Roy J & Dixon P (2016). Creating multi-functional landscapes: using exclusion fences to frame feral ungulate management preferences in remote Aboriginal-owned northern Australia. Biological Conservation 197:235–246.

Ens EJ, Walsh F & Clarke PA (2017). Aboriginal people and Australia’s vegetation: past and current interactions. In: Keith DA (ed), Australian vegetation, 3rd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 89–112.

Evans KL, Ewen JG, Guillera-Arroita G, Johnson JA, Penteriani V, Ryan SJ, Sollmann R & Gordon IJ (2020). Conservation in the maelstrom of Covid-19 – a call to action to solve the challenges, exploit opportunities and prepare for the next pandemic. Animal Conservation 23(3):235–238.


Faast R & Weinstein P (2020). Plant‐derived medicinal entomochemicals: an integrated approach to biodiscovery in Australia. Austral Entomology 59(1):3–15.

Fensham RJ, Carnegie AJ, Laffineur B, Makinson RO, Pegg GS & Wills J (2020a). Imminent extinction of Australian Myrtaceae by fungal disease. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 35(7):554–557.

Fensham RJ, Laffineur B, Collingwood TD, Beech E, Bell S, Hopper SD, Phillips G, Rivers MC, Walsh N & White M (2020b). Rarity or decline: key concepts for the Red List of Australian eucalypts. Biological Conservation 243:108455.

Fernandez-Winzer L, Berthon KA, Entwistle P, Manea A, Winzer N, Pegg GS, Carnegie AJ & Leishman MR (2020). Direct and indirect community effects of the invasive plant pathogen Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) in eastern Australian rainforests. Biological Invasions 22(7):2357–2369.

Finlayson CM, Capon SJ, Rissik D, Pittock J, Fisk G, Davidson NC, Bodmin KA, Papas P, Robertson HA, Schallenberg M, Saintilan N, Edyvane K & Bino G (2017). Policy considerations for managing wetlands under a changing climate. Marine and Freshwater Research 68(10):1803–1815.

Florabase (online database) (2021). Western Australian flora statistics, Western Australian Herbarium, Biodiversity and Conservation Science, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Perth,

FloraNT Northern Territory Flora Online (online database) (2015). Threatened species, Northern Territory Herbarium, Department of Land Resource Management, Palmerston,

Florin SA, Fairbairn AS, Nango M, Djandjomerr D, Marwick B, Fullagar R, Smith M, Wallis LA & Clarkson C (2020). The first Australian plant foods at Madjedbebe, 65,000–53,000 years ago. Nature Communications 11:924.

Foran B, Stafford Smith M, Burnside D, Andrew M, Blesing D, Forrest K & Taylor J (2019). Australian rangeland futures: time now for systemic responses to interconnected challenges. The Rangeland Journal 41(3):271–292.

Fuller RA, Jackson MV, Amano T, Choi CY, Clemens RS, Hansen BD, Lin DL, Steven R & Woodworth BK (2020). Collect, connect, upscale: towards coordinated monitoring of migratory shorebirds in the Asia-Pacific. Australian Zoologist 41(2):205–213.


Gallagher RV (2020a). National prioritisation of Australian plants affected by the 2019–2020 bushfire season, report to the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra.

Gallagher RV (2020b). Final list of plants requiring urgent management intervention, report prepared for the Wildlife and Threatened Species Bushfire Recovery Expert Panel, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra.

Gallagher RV, Allen S, Mackenzie BDE, Yates CJ, Gosper CR, Keith DA, Merow C, White MD, Wenk E, Maitner BS, He K, Adams VM & Auld TD (2021). High fire frequency and the impact of the 2019–2020 megafires on Australian plant diversity. Diversity and Distributions 27(7):1166–1179.

Garnett ST & Geyle HM (2018). The extent and adequacy of monitoring for Australian threatened bird species. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 43–55.

Gellie NJC, Mills JG, Breed MF & Lowe AJ (2017). Revegetation rewilds the soil bacterial microbiome of an old field. Molecular Ecology 26(11):2895–2904.

Gentle M, Allen BL, Oakey J, Speed J, Harriott L, Loader J, Robbins A, de Villiers D & Hanger J (2019). Genetic sampling identifies canid predators of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in peri-urban areas. Landscape and Urban Planning 190:103591.

Geyle HM, Tingley R, Amey AP, Cogger H, Couper PJ, Cowan M et al. (2020). Reptiles on the brink: identifying the Australian terrestrial snake and lizard species most at risk of extinction. Pacific Conservation Biology 27(1):3–12.

Geyle HM, Woinarski JCZ, Baker GB, Dickman CR, Dutson G, Fisher DO et al. (2018). Quantifying extinction risk and forecasting the number of impending Australian bird and mammal extinctions. Pacific Conservation Biology 24(2):157–167.

Gibbons P, Macintosh A, Constable AL & Hayashi K (2018). Outcomes from 10 years of biodiversity offsetting. Global Change Biology 24(2):e643–e654.

Gillespie GR, Dale Roberts J, Hunter D, Hoskin CJ, Alford RA, Heard GW, Hines H, Lemckert F, Newell D & Scheele BC (2020). Status and priority conservation actions for Australian frog species. Biological Conservation 247:108543.

Gillies CL, Castine SA, Alleway HK, Crawford C, Fitzsimons JA, Hancock B, Koch P, McAfee D, McLeod IM & zu Ermgassen PSE (2020). Conservation status of the oyster reef ecosystem of southern and eastern Australia. Global Ecology and Conservation 22:e00988.

Godfree R, Firn J, Johnson S, Knerr N, Stol J & Doerr V (2017). Why non-native grasses pose a critical emerging threat to biodiversity conservation, habitat connectivity and agricultural production in multifunctional rural landscapes. Landscape Ecology 32(6):1219–1242.

Godfree RC, Knerr N, Encinas-Viso F, Albrecht D, Bush D, Christine Cargill D et al. (2021). Implications of the 2019–2020 megafires for the biogeography and conservation of Australian vegetation. Nature Communications 12:1023.

González-Orozco CE, Pollock LJ, Thornhill AH, Mishler BD, Knerr N, Laffan SW et al. (2016). Phylogenetic approaches reveal biodiversity threats under climate change. Nature Climate Change 6(12):1110–1114.

Gore-Birch C, Costello O, Garnett S, Goolmeer T, Legge S, Moggridge B, Robinson C & van Leeuwen S (2020). A case for culturally significant species, submission to the 2020 independent review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra.

Gorman J, Pearson D & Wurm P (2020). Old ways, new ways – scaling up from customary use of plant products to commercial harvest taking a multifunctional, landscape approach. Land 9(5):171.

Gray CL, Hill SLL, Newbold T, Hudson LN, Börger L, Contu S, Hoskins AJ, Ferrier S, Purvis A & Scharlemann JPW (2016). Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide. Nature Communications 7:12306.

Greenville AC, Burns E, Dickman CR, Keith DA, Lindenmayer DB, Morgan JW et al. (2018). Biodiversity responds to increasing climatic extremes in a biome-specific manner. Science of the Total Environment 634:382–393.

Gufu GD & Leishman MR (2018). The current status of exotic freshwater vascular plants in Australia – a systematic description. Cunninghamia 18:123–133.

Guzik MT, Austin AD, Cooper SJB, Harvey MS, Humphreys WF, Bradford T, Eberhard SM, King RA, Leys R, Muirhead KA & Tomlinson M (2010). Is the Australian subterranean fauna uniquely diverse? Invertebrate Systematics 24(5):407–418.


Hajkowicz S, Karimi S, Wark T, Chen C, Evans M, Rens N, Dawson D, Charlton A, Brennan T, Moffatt C, Srikumar S & Tong KJ (2019). Artificial intelligence: solving problems, growing the economy and improving our quality of life, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Data61, Sydney.

Halse S (2018). Conservation and impact assessment of subterranean fauna in Australia. In: Moldovan OT, Kováč Ľ & Halse S (eds), Ecological studies, vol 235, Cave ecology, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 479–494.

Hamonts K, Bissett A, Macdonald BCT, Barton PS, Manning AD & Young A (2017). Effects of ecological restoration on soil microbial diversity in a temperate grassy woodland. Applied Soil Ecology 117–118:117–128.

Harris S & Lucas C (2019). Understanding the variability of Australian fire weather between 1973 and 2017. PLOS ONE 14(9):e0222328.

Heatwole H & Rowley JJL (eds) (2018). Status of conservation and decline of amphibians: Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific Islands, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Heenan C (2020). Coastal emus: sighting data analysis, Clarence Valley Council, Grafton, New South Wales.

Herring MW, Robinson W, Zander KK & Garnett ST (2019). Rice fields support the global stronghold for an endangered waterbird. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 284:106599.

Hoeppner JM & Hughes L (2019). Climate readiness of recovery plans for threatened Australian species. Conservation Biology 33(3):534–542.

Hoffmann AA, Rymer PD, Byrne M, Ruthrof KX, Whinam J, McGeoch M et al. (2019). Impacts of recent climate change on terrestrial flora and fauna: some emerging Australian examples. Austral Ecology 44(1):3–27.

Hoffmann BD & Broadhurst LM (2016). The economic cost of managing invasive species in Australia. NeoBiota 31:1–18.

Hohnen R, Murphy BP, Legge SM, Dickman CR & Woinarski JCZ (2019). Uptake of ‘Eradicat’ feral cat baits by non-target species on Kangaroo Island. Wildlife Research 47(7–8):547–556.

Hose GC & Stumpp C (2019). Architects of the underworld: bioturbation by groundwater invertebrates influences aquifer hydraulic properties. Aquatic Sciences 81:20.

Hose GC, Asmyhr MG, Cooper SJB & Humphreys WF (2015). Down under down under: Austral groundwater life. In: Stow A, Maclean N & Holwell GI (eds), Austral ark: the state of wildlife in Australia and New Zealand, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 512–536.

Hradsky BA (2020). Conserving Australia’s threatened native mammals in predator-invaded, fire-prone landscapes. Wildlife Research 47(1):1–15.

Hughes L, Dean A, Steffen W & Rice M (2019). This is what climate change looks like, Climate Council of Australia, Sydney.

Humphreys WF (2018). Where angels fear to tread: developments in cave ecology. In: Moldovan OT, Kováč Ľ & Halse S (eds), Ecological studies, vol 235, Cave ecology, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 497–532.

Humphries P & Walker K (eds) (2013). Ecology of Australian freshwater fishes, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Hyde J, Cooper SJB, Humphreys WF, Austin AD & Munguia P (2017). Diversity patterns of subterranean invertebrate fauna in calcretes of the Yilgarn Region, Western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 69(1):114–121.

Hyman IT, Ahyong ST, Köhler F, McEvey SF, Milledge GA, Reid CAM & Rowley JJL (2020). Impacts of the 2019–2020 bushfires on New South Wales biodiversity: a rapid assessment of distribution data for selected invertebrate taxa. Technical Reports of the Australian Museum Online 32:1–17.


Invasive Species Council & Monash University (2020). Invasive insects: risks and pathways project, Invasive Species Council, Melbourne.

IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) (2019). Global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services, Brondizio ES, Settele J, Díaz S & Ngo HT (eds), IPBES Secretariat, Bonn, Germany.

IUCN-WCPA Task Force on OECMs (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources World Commission on Protected Areas) (2019). Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures, Protected Area Technical Report Series No. 3, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.


James CS, Reside AE, VanDerWal J, Pearson RG, Burrows D, Capon SJ, Harwood TD, Hodgson L & Waltham NJ (2017). Sink or swim? Potential for high faunal turnover in Australian rivers under climate change. Journal of Biogeography 44(3):489–501.

John J (2018). Diatom flora of Australia, vol 2, Diatoms from Tasmania: taxonomy and biogeography, Koeltz Botanical Books, Germany.

John J (2020). Diatom flora of Australia, vol 3, Diatoms from arid Australia: taxonomy and biogeography, Koeltz Botanical Books, Germany.

John J (in press). Diatom flora of Australia, vol 4, Diatoms in tropical Australia: Northern Territory and Queensland, Koeltz Botanical Books, Germany.

Johnston M, Algar D, O’Donoghue M, Morris J, Buckmaster T & Quinn J (2020). Efficacy and welfare assessment of an encapsulated para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) formulation as a bait-delivered toxicant for feral cats (Felis catus). Wildlife Research 47(8):686–697.


Kearney SG, Adams VM, Fuller RA, Possingham HP & Watson JEM (2018a). Estimating the benefit of well-managed protected areas for threatened species conservation. Oryx 54(2):276–284.

Kearney SG, Adams VM, Fuller RA, Possingham HP & Watson JEM (2018a). Estimating the benefit of well-managed protected areas for threatened species conservation. Oryx 54(2):276–284.

Kearney SG, Watson JE, Reside AE, Fisher DO, Maron M, Doherty TS et al. (2020). A novel threat-abatement framework confirms an urgent need to limit habitat loss and improve management of invasive species and inappropriate fire regimes for Australia’s threatened species. Preprints:2020100372.

Keith DA, Pellow BJ & Appleby M (2018). Monitoring threatened ecosystems and ecological communities. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Koehn JD, Balcombe SR, Baumgartner LJ, Bice CM, Burndred K, Ellis I, Koster WM, Lintermans M, Pearce L, Sharpe C, Stuart IG & Todd CR (2020a). What is needed to restore native fishes in Australia’s Murray–Darling Basin? Marine and Freshwater Research 71(11):1464–1468.

Koehn JD, Raymond SM, Stuart I, Todd CR, Balcombe SR, Zampatti BP et al. (2020b). A compendium of ecological knowledge for restoration of freshwater fishes in Australia’s Murray–Darling Basin. Marine and Freshwater Research 71(11):1391–1463.

Kragt M, Manero A, Hawkins J & Lison C (2019). A review of mine rehabilitation condition setting in Western Australia, report prepared for the Western Australian Biodiversity Science Institute, Western Australian Biodiversity Science Institute, Perth.


Larson S, Stoeckl N, Jarvis D, Addison J, Grainger D, Watkin Lui F, Walalakoo Aboriginal Corporation, Bunuba Dawangarri Aboriginal Corporation RNTBC, Ewamian Aboriginal Corporation RNTBC & Yanunijarra Aboriginal Corporation RNTBC (2020). Indigenous land and sea management programs (ILSMPs) enhance the wellbeing of Indigenous Australians. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(1):125.

Latch P (2018a). The value of assessing species recovery: towards a national framework. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Latch P (2018b). Reporting on success in threatened species conservation: the national policy context. In: Garnett S, Latch P, Lindenmayer D & Woinarski J (eds), Recovering Australian threatened species: a book of hope, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Lavery T, Lindenmayer D, Blanchard W, Carey A, Cook E, Copley P et al. (2021). Counting plants: the extent and adequacy of monitoring for a continental-scale list of threatened plant species. Biological Conservation 260:109193.

Lazenby BT, Tobler MW, Brown WE, Hawkins CE, Hocking GJ, Hume F et al. (2018). Density trends and demographic signals uncover the long-term impact of transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils. Journal of Applied Ecology 55(3):1368–1379.

Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds) (2018a). Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Legge S, Murphy BP, McGregor H, Woinarski JCZ, Augusteyn J, Ballard G et al. (2017). Enumerating a continental-scale threat: how many feral cats are in Australia? Biological Conservation 206:293–303.

Legge S, Ringma J, Bode M, Radford J, Woinarski J, Mitchell N et al. (2019). Protecting Australian mammals from introduced cats and foxes: the current status and future growth of predator-free havens, Threatened Species Recovery Hub, Canberra.

Legge S, Scheele BC, Woinarski JCZ, Garnett ST, Keith DA, Lintermans M, Robinson NM & Lindenmayer DB (2018b). Summary: monitoring extent and adequacy for threatened biodiversity. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 127–134.

Legge S, Woinarski JCZ, Burbidge AA, Palmer R, Ringma J, Radford JQ et al. (2018c). Havens for threatened Australian mammals: the contributions of fenced areas and offshore islands to the protection of mammal species susceptible to introduced predators. Wildlife Research 45(7):627–644.

Legge S, Woinarski JCZ, Dickman CR, Doherty TS, McGregor H & Murphy BP (2020). Cat ecology, impacts and management in Australia. Wildlife Research 47(8):i–vi.

Lepschi BJ, Cargill DC, Albrecht DE & Monro AM (2019). Census of the flora of the Australian Capital Territory, version 4.1, Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, Australian National Herbarium, Canberra,

Liddicoat C, Bi P, Waycott M, Glover J, Lowe AJ & Weinstein P (2018). Landscape biodiversity correlates with respiratory health in Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 206:113–122.

Lincoln G, Austin BJ, Dobbs RJ, Mathews D, Oades D, Wiggan A, Bayley S, Edgar J, King T, George K, Mansfield J, Melbourne J, Vigilante T & Balanggarra, Bardi Jawi, Dambimangari, Karajarri, Nyul Nyul, Wunambal Gaambera & Yawuru Traditional Owners (2017). Collaborative science on Kimberley Saltwater Country – a guide for researchers, report number V17.03, prepared by the Kimberley Land Council for the Kimberley Indigenous Saltwater Science Project, Western Australian Marine Science Institute, Broome.

Lindenmayer DB, Crane M, Evans MC, Maron M, Gibbons P, Bekessy S & Blanchard W (2017). The anatomy of a failed offset. Biological Conservation 210(Part A):286–292.

Lintermans M & Robinson W (2018). The extent and adequacy of monitoring for Australian threatened freshwater fish species. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BA (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Lintermans M (2004). Human‐assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38(3):481–501.

Lintermans M, Geyle HM, Beatty S, Brown C, Ebner BC, Freeman R et al. (2020). Big trouble for little fish: identifying Australian freshwater fishes in imminent risk of extinction. Pacific Conservation Biology 26(4):365–377.

Lloyd TJ, Fuller RA, Oliver JL, Tulloch AI, Barnes M & Steven R (2020). Estimating the spatial coverage of citizen science for monitoring threatened species. Global Ecology and Conservation 23:e01048.

Lullfitz A, Dabb A, Reynolds R, Knapp L, Pettersen C & Hopper SD (2020). Contemporary distribution of Macrozamia dyeri (Zamiaceae) is correlated with patterns of Nyungar occupation in south‐east coastal Western Australia. Austral Ecology 45(7):933–947.


Matthews EF, Abrams KM, Cooper SJB, Huey JA, Hillyer MJ, Humphreys WF, Austin AD & Guzik MT (2020). Scratching the surface of subterranean biodiversity: molecular analysis reveals a diverse and previously unknown fauna of Parabathynellidae (Crustacea: Bathynellacea) from the Pilbara, Western Australia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 142:106643.

May J, Hobbs RJ & Valentine LE (2017). Are offsets effective? An evaluation of recent environmental offsets in Western Australia. Biological Conservation 206:249–257.

Mayfield AE, Seybold SJ, Haag WR, Johnson MT, Kerns BK, Kilgo JC, Larkin DJ, Lucardi RD, Moltzan BD, Pearson DE, Rothlisberger JD, Schardt JD, Schwartz MK & Young MK (2021). Impacts of invasive species in terrestrial and aquatic systems in the United States. In: Poland TM, Patel-Weynand T, Finch DM, Miniat CF, Hayes DC & Lopez VM (eds), Invasive species in forests and rangelands of the United States: a comprehensive science synthesis for the United States forest sector, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 5–39.

McColl KA & Sunarto A (2020). Biocontrol of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Australia: a review and future directions. Fishes 5(2):17.

McDavitt MT (2005). The cultural significance of sharks and rays in Aboriginal societies across Australia’s top end, Marine Education Society of Australia, Brisbane.

McFadden MS, Gilbert D, Bradfield K, Evans M, Marantelli G & Byrne P (2018). The role of ex-situ amphibian conservation in Australia. In: Heatwole H & Rowley JJL (eds), Status of conservation and decline of amphibians: Australia, New Zealand and Pacific Islands, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 125–140.

McKemey M & Patterson L (2019). Aboriginal cultural revival through the reintroduction of cultural burning and development of a fire and seasons calendar, in south-eastern Australia. In: Fuels of today – fire behaviour of tomorrow, 6th International Fire Behaviour and Fuels Conference, Sydney, 29 April–3 May 2019, International Association of Wildland Fire, Missoula, Montana, United States of America.

McKemey M, Ens E, Rangers YM, Costello O & Reid N (2020). Indigenous knowledge and seasonal calendar inform adaptive savanna burning in northern Australia. Sustainability 12(3):995.

McLeod R (2018). Annual costs of weeds in Australia, Centre for Invasive Species Solutions, Canberra.

MDBA (Murray–Darling Basin Authority) (2019). Basin-wide environmental watering strategy, MDBA, Canberra.

MDBA (Murray–Darling Basin Authority) (2020). The Basin Plan 2020 evaluation, MDBA, Canberra.

Meeting of Environment Ministers Biodiversity Working Group (2016). Report on the review of the first five years of Australia’s biodiversity conservation strategy 2010–2030, Australian Government Department of the Environment, Canberra.

Melville J, Chaplin K, Hutchinson M, Sumner J, Gruber B, MacDonald AJ & Sarre SD (2019). Taxonomy and conservation of grassland earless dragons: new species and an assessment of the first possible extinction of a reptile on mainland Australia. Royal Society Open Science 6(5):190233.

Mildwaters J & Clarkson C (2020). An experimental assessment of the grinding characteristics of some native seeds used by Aboriginal Australians. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 30:102127.

Milgin A, Nardea L, Grey H, Laborde S & Jackson S (2020). Sustainability crises are crises of relationship: learning from Nyikina ecology and ethics. People and Nature 2(4):1210–1222.

Mitchell BA, Fitzsimons JA, Stevens CMD & Wright DR (2018). PPA or OECM? Differentiating between privately protected areas and other effective area‐based conservation measures on private land. Parks 24:49–60.

Mitchell N, Hipsey MR, Arnall S, McGrath G, Tareque HB, Kuchling G, Vogwill R, Sivapalan M, Porter WP & Kearney MR (2013). Linking eco-energetics and eco-hydrology to select sites for the assisted colonization of Australia’s rarest reptile. Biology 2(1):1–25.

Mitchell NJ, Rodriguez N, Kuchling G, Arnall SG & Kearney MR (2016). Reptile embryos and climate change: modelling limits of viability to inform translocation decisions. Biological Conservation 204(Part A):134–147.

Moir ML (2020). Coextinction of Pseudococcus markharveyi (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): a case study in the modern insect extinction crisis. Austral Entomology 60(1):89–97.

Mokany K, Harwood TD, Halse SA & Ferrier S (2019). Riddles in the dark: assessing diversity patterns for cryptic subterranean fauna of the Pilbara. Diversity and Distributions 25(2):240–254.

Moseby KE, McGregor H & Read JL (2020). Effectiveness of the Felixer grooming trap for the control of feral cats: a field trial in arid South Australia. Wildlife Research 47(7–8):599–609.


Nahrung HF & Carnegie AJ (2020). Non-native forest insects and pathogens in Australia: establishment, spread, and impact. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 3:37.

National Environmental Science Program Threatened Species Recovery Hub (2020). Aussie icons at risk: scientists name 20 snakes and lizards on the path to extinction, media release, Brisbane, 29 Sep.

National Landcare Program (n.d.). World Heritage grants, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra,

Neergheen-Bhujun V, Awan AT, Baran Y, Bunnefeld N, Chan K, dela Cruz TE et al. (2017). Biodiversity, drug discovery, and the future of global health: introducing the biodiversity to biomedicine consortium, a call to action. Journal of Global Health 7(2):020304.

Nevill PG, Zhong X, Tonti-Filippini J, Byrne M, Hislop M, Thiele K, van Leeuwen S, Boykin LM & Small I (2020). Large scale genome skimming from herbarium material for accurate plant identification and phylogenomics. Plant Methods 16:1.

Newman B, Wilson KA, Melbourne J, Mathews D, Wysong M & Iacona GD (2019). The contributions of nature to people within the Yawuru Indigenous Protected Area. Conservation Science and Practice 1(6):e16.

Nielsen UN, Stafford-Smith M, Metternicht GI, Ash A, Baumber A, Boer MM et al. (2020). Challenges, solutions and research priorities for sustainable rangelands. The Rangeland Journal 42(5):359–373.

Nishant R, Kennedy M & Corbett J (2020). Artificial intelligence for sustainability: challenges, opportunities, and a research agenda. International Journal of Information Management 53:102104.

NRE (Tasmanian Government Department of Natural Resources and Environment Tasmania) (2021). List of threatened species, NRE, Hobart,

NSW Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2020). NSW threatened species and ecological communities listed in the Schedules of the Biodiversity Conservation Act, 2016, New South Wales Government Department of Planning, Industry and Environment, Sydney.

Nyari S, Waugh CA, Dong J, Quigley BL, Hanger J, Loader J, Polkinghorne A & Timms P (2017). Epidemiology of chlamydial infection and disease in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population. PLOS ONE 12(12):e0190114.


Ocock J & Wassens S (2018). The status of decline and conservation of frogs in the arid and semi-arid zones of Australia. In: Heatwole H & Rowley JJL (eds), Status of conservation and decline of amphibians: Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific Islands, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 91–106.

O’Loughlin LS & Green PT (2017). The secondary invasion of giant African land snail has little impact on litter or seedling dynamics in rainforest. Austral Ecology 42(7):819–830.


Paltridge R & Skroblin A (2018). Threatened species monitoring on Aboriginal land: finding the common ground between Kuka, Jukurrpa, ranger work and science. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 321–332.

Perry J, Patykowski J, Murphy HT, Richards AE, Gillespie G, Vanderduys EP, Douglas MM, Setterfield S, Somaweera R & Lourie H (2021). Savanna fire regimes and biodiversity impacts in Northern Australia, UniPrint NT, Charles Darwin University, Darwin.

Porter JL, Kingsford RT & Brandis K (2019). Aerial survey of wetland birds in eastern Australia – October 2018 annual summary report, Centre for Ecosystem Science, UNSW Sydney, Sydney.

Prober SM, Raisbeck-Brown N, Porter NB, Williams KJ, Leviston Z & Dickson F (2019). Recent climate-driven ecological change across a continent as perceived through local ecological knowledge. PLOS ONE 14(11):e0224625.

Pyke ML, Toussaint S, Close PG, Dobbs RJ, Davey I, George KJ et al. (2018). Wetlands need people: a framework for understanding and promoting Australian Indigenous wetland management. Ecology and Society 23(3):43.


Ramsey DSL, Cox T, Strive T, Forsyth DM, Stuart I, Hall R, Elsworth P & Campbell S (2020). Emerging RHDV2 suppresses the impact of endemic and novel strains of RHDV on wild rabbit populations. Journal of Applied Ecology 57(3):630–641.

Rangan H, Bell KL, Baum DA, Fowler R, McConvell P, Saunders T, Spronck S, Kull CA & Murphy DJ (2015). New genetic and linguistic analyses show ancient human influence on baobab evolution and distribution in Australia. PLOS ONE 10(4):e0119758.

Rathbone DA & Barrett S (2017). Vertebrate browsing impacts in a threatened montane plant community and implications for management. Ecological Management and Restoration 18(2):164–171.

Ratnayake HU, Kearney MR, Govekar P, Karoly D & Welbergen JA (2019). Forecasting wildlife die-offs from extreme heat events. Animal Conservation 22(4):386–395.

Read JL, Bowden T, Hodgens P, Hess M, McGregor H & Moseby K (2019). Target specificity of the Felixer grooming “trap”. Wildlife Society Bulletin 43(1):112–120.

Read JL, Firn J, Grice AC, Murphy R, Ryan-Colton E & Schlesinger CA (2020). Ranking buffel: comparative risk and mitigation costs of key environmental and socio-cultural threats in central Australia. Ecology and Evolution 10(23):12745–12763.

Renwick AR, Robinson CJ, Garnett ST, Leiper I, Possingham HP & Carwardine J (2017). Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: an Australian case-study. PLOS ONE 12(3):e0173876.

Rix MG, Huey JA, Main BY, Waldock JM, Harrison SE, Comer S, Austin AD & Harvey MS (2017). Where have all the spiders gone? The decline of a poorly known invertebrate fauna in the agricultural and arid zones of southern Australia. Austral Entomology 56(1):14–22.

Rossetto M, Ens EJ, Honings T, Wilson PD, Yap JYS, Costello O, Round ER & Bowern C (2017). From Songlines to genomes: prehistoric assisted migration of a rain forest tree by Australian Aboriginal people. PLOS ONE 12(11):e0186663.

Roy Morgan Research (2018). Australian attitudes to nature 2017, report prepared for World Wildlife Fund Australia, Roy Morgan Research, Melbourne.

Rus AI, McArthur C, Mella VSA & Crowther MS (2021). Habitat fragmentation affects movement and space use of a specialist folivore, the koala. Animal Conservation 24(1):26–37.

Russell S, Ens E & Ngukurr Yangbala Rangers (2021). ‘Now it’s not a billabong’: eco-cultural assessment of billabong condition in remote northern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 72(7):925–941.

Ruthrof KX, Breshears DD, Fontaine JB, Froend RH, Matusick G, Kala J, Miller BP, Mitchell PJ, Wilson SK, van Keulen M, Enright NJ, Law DJ, Wernberg T & Hardy GESJ (2018). Subcontinental heat wave triggers terrestrial and marine, multi-taxa responses. Scientific Reports 8:13094.

Ryan A, Colloff MJ & Pittock J (2021). Flow to nowhere: the disconnect between environmental watering and the conservation of threatened species in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 72(10):1408–1429.


Samuel G (2020). Independent review of the EPBC Act – final report, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra.

Sands DPA (2018). Important issues facing insect conservation in Australia: now and into the future. Austral Entomology 57(2):150–172.

SCBD (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity) (n.d.). Biodiversity and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, SCBD, Montreal.

Schebella MF, Weber D, Schultz L & Weinstein P (2019). The wellbeing benefits associated with perceived and measured biodiversity in Australian urban green spaces. Sustainability 11(3):802.

Scheele BC & Gillespie GR (2018). The extent and adequacy of monitoring for Australian threatened frog species. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 57–68.

Scheele BC, Skerratt LF, Grogan LF, Hunter DA, Clemann N, McFadden M, Newell D, Hoskin CJ, Gillespie GR, Heard GW, Brannelly L, Roberts AA & Berger L (2017). After the epidemic: ongoing declines, stabilizations and recoveries in amphibians afflicted by chytridiomycosis. Biological Conservation 206:37–46.

Schultz R, Abbott T, Yamaguchi J & Cairney S (2019). Australian Indigenous land management, ecological knowledge and languages for conservation. EcoHealth 16(1):171–176.

Senior KL, Giljohann KM, McCarthy MA, Rainsford FW & Kelly LT (2021). Predicting mammal responses to pyrodiversity: from microbats to macropods. Biological Conservation 256:109031.

Shanahan DF, Bush R, Gaston KJ, Lin BB, Dean J, Barber E & Fuller RA (2016). Health benefits from nature experiences depend on dose. Scientific Reports 6:28551.

Sharpe L, Cale B & Gardner JL (2019). Weighing the cost: the impact of serial heatwaves on body mass in a small Australian passerine. Journal of Avian Biology 50(11):e02355.

Short J, Copley P, Ruykys L, Morris K, Read J & Moseby K (2019). Review of translocations of the greater stick-nest rat (Leporillus conditor): lessons learnt to facilitate ongoing recovery. Wildlife Research 46(6):455–475.

Silcock JL & Fensham RJ (2018). Using evidence of decline and extinction risk to identify priority regions, habitats and threats for plant conservation in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 66(7):541–555.

Silcock JL (2018). Aboriginal translocations: the intentional propagation and dispersal of plants in Aboriginal Australia. Journal of Ethnobiology 38(3):390–405.

Silcock JL, Field AR, Walsh NG & Fensham RJ (2020). To name those lost: assessing extinction likelihood in the Australian vascular flora. Oryx 54(2):167–177.

Silcock JL, Simmons CL, Monks L, Dillon R, Reiter N, Jusaitis M, Vesk PA, Byrne M & Coates DJ (2019). Threatened plant translocation in Australia: a review. Biological Conservation 236:211–222.

Silva LGM, Doyle KE, Duffy D, Humphries P, Horta A & Baumgartner LJ (2020). Mortality events resulting from Australia’s catastrophic fires threaten aquatic biota. Global Change Biology 26(10):5345–5350.

Simmonds JS, Reside AE, Stone Z, Walsh JC, Ward MS & Maron M (2020). Vulnerable species and ecosystems are falling through the cracks of environmental impact assessments. Conservation Letters 13(3):e12694.

Simpfendorfer CA, Kyne PM, Noble TH, Goldsbury J, Basiita RK, Lindsay R, Shields A, Perry C & Jerry DR (2016). Environmental DNA detects critically endangered largetooth sawfish in the wild. Endangered Species Research 30:109–116.

Skroblin A, Carboon T, Bidu G, Chapman N, Miller M, Taylor K, Taylor W, Game ET & Wintle BA (2021). Including Indigenous knowledge in species distribution modeling for increased ecological insights. Conservation Biology 35(2):587–597.

Sloane DR, Ens E, Wunungmurra J, Falk A, Marika G, Maymuru M, Towler G, Preece D & Yirralka Rangers (2018). Western and Indigenous knowledge converge to explain Melaleuca forest dieback on Aboriginal land in northern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 70(1):125–139.

Soanes K & Lentini PE (2019). When cities are the last chance for saving species. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 17(4):225–231.

Somaweera R, Brien ML, Sonneman T, Didham RK & Webber BL (2019). Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence: knowledge shortfalls threaten the effective conservation of freshwater crocodiles. Global Ecology and Conservation 20:e00773.

Sonter LJ, Ali SH & Watson JEM (2018). Mining and biodiversity: key issues and research needs in conservation science. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285(1892):20181926.

Spencer RJ, Van Dyke J, Petrov K, Ferronato B, McDougall F, Austin M, Keitel C & Georges A (2018). Profiling a possible rapid extinction event in a long-lived species. Biological Conservation 221:190–197.

Stephenson B, David B, Fresløv J, Arnold LJ, GunaiKurnai Land and Waters Aboriginal Corporation, Delannoy JJ et al. (2020). 2000 year-old Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) Aboriginal food remains, Australia. Scientific Reports 10:22151.

Steven R, Barnes M, Garnett ST, Garrard G, O’Connor J, Oliver JL, Robinson C, Tulloch A & Fuller RA (2019). Aligning citizen science with best practice: threatened species conservation in Australia. Conservation Science and Practice 1(10):e100.

Stobo-Wilson AM, Brandle R, Johnson CN & Jones ME (2020). Management of invasive mesopredators in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia: effectiveness and implications. Wildlife Research 47(7–8):720–730.

Stuart IG, Fanson BG, Lyon JP, Stocks J, Brooks S, Norris A, Thwaites L, Beitzel M, Hutchison M, Ye Q, Koehn JD & Bennett AF (2021). Continental threat: how many common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are there in Australia? Biological Conservation 254:108942.

SVA Consulting (Social Ventures Australia Consulting) (2016). Consolidated report on Indigenous Protected Areas following Social Return on Investment analyses, prepared for the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, SVA Consulting, Sydney.


Taxonomy Australia (2020). New Australian species 2020, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra,

Taylor GS, Braby MF, Moir ML, Harvey MS, Sands DPA, New TR et al. (2018a). Strategic national approach for improving the conservation management of insects and allied invertebrates in Australia. Austral Entomology 57(2):124–149.

Taylor L, Hahs AK & Hochuli DF (2018b). Wellbeing and urban living: nurtured by nature. Urban Ecosystems 21(1):197–208.

Taylor M (2020). Building nature’s safety net 2020: the promise of 2030, report prepared for World Wide Fund for Nature Australia (WWF-Australia), WWF-Australia, Sydney.

Taylor-Brown A, Booth R, Gillett A, Mealy E, Ogbourne SM, Polkinghorne A & Conroy GC (2019). The impact of human activities on Australian wildlife. PLOS ONE 14(1):e0206958.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2018). Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions threatened and priority flora list 05 December 2018, Government of Western Australia Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Perth.

Tingley R, Macdonald SL, Mitchell NJ, Woinarski JCZ, Meiri S, Bowles P et al. (2019). Geographic and taxonomic patterns of extinction risk in Australian squamates. Biological Conservation 238:108203.

Toussaint S (2014). Fishing for fish and for jaminyjarti in northern Aboriginal Australia. Oceania 84(1):38–51.

Trancoso R, Syktus J, Toombs N, Ahrens D, Wong KKH & Pozza RD (2020). Heatwaves intensification in Australia: a consistent trajectory across past, present and future. Science of the Total Environment 742:140521.

Turner MG, Calder WJ, Cumming GS, Hughes TP, Jentsch A, LaDeau SL, Lenton TM, Shuman BN, Turetsky MR, Ratajczak Z, Williams JW, Williams AP & Carpenter SR (2020). Climate change, ecosystems and abrupt change: science priorities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 375(1794):20190105.


Van Dyke JU, Ferronato BDO & Spencer RJ (2018). Current conservation status of Australian freshwater turtles. Australian Journal of Zoology 66(1):1–3.

Van Dyke JU, Spencer RJ, Thompson MB, Chessman B, Howard K & Georges A (2019). Conservation implications of turtle declines in Australia’s Murray River system. Scientific Reports 9:1998.

Vertessy R, Barma D, Baumgartner L & Bond N (2019). Independent assessment of the 2018–19 fish deaths in the lower Darling, Murray–Darling Basin Authority, Canberra.


van Eeden L, Nimmo D, Mahony M, Herman K, Ehmke G, Driessen J, O’Connor J, Bino G, Taylor M & Dickman C (2020). Australia’s 2019–20 bushfires: the wildlife toll, World Wide Fund for Nature Australia, Sydney.

van Klinken RD & Friedel MH (2018). Unassisted invasions: understanding and responding to Australia’s high-impact environmental grass weeds. Australian Journal of Botany 65(8):678–690.


Wall DH, Nielsen UN & Six J (2015). Soil biodiversity and human health. Nature 528(7580):69–76.

Ward A & Lassen M (2018). Expanding finance opportunities to support private land conservation in Australia, scoping paper, Australian Land Conservation Alliance, Melbourne.

Ward M, Carwardine J, Yong CJ, Watson JEM, Silcock J, Taylor GS et al. (2021). A national-scale dataset for threats impacting Australia’s imperiled flora and fauna. Ecology and Evolution 11(17):11749–11761.

Ward M, Tulloch AIT, Radford JQ, Williams BA, Reside AE, Macdonald SL et al. (2020). Impact of 2019–2020 mega-fires on Australian fauna habitat. Nature Ecology and Evolution 4:1321–1326.

Ward MS, Simmonds JS, Reside AE, Watson JEM, Rhodes JR, Possingham HP, Trezise J, Fletcher R, File L & Taylor M (2019). Lots of loss with little scrutiny: the attrition of habitat critical for threatened species in Australia. Conservation Science and Practice 1(11):e117.

Wensing E & Callinan T (2020). Desk-top review of Indigenous engagement in the National Environmental Science Program (NESP), prepared for the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, SGS Economics and Planning, Canberra.

Westgate MJ, Crane M, Florance D & Lindenmayer DB (2021). Synergistic impacts of aggressive species on small birds in a fragmented landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology 58(4):825–835.

White NE, Guzik MT, Austin AD, Moore GI, Humphreys WF, Alexander J & Bunce M (2020). Detection of the rare Australian endemic blind cave eel (Ophisternon candidum) with environmental DNA: implications for threatened species management in subterranean environments. Hydrobiologia 847(15):3201–3211.

WHO & SCBD (World Health Organization & Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity) (2015). Connecting global priorities: biodiversity and human health – a state of knowledge review, WHO Press, Geneva.

Wildlife and Threatened Species Bushfire Recovery Expert Panel (2020). Provisional list of priority invertebrate species requiring urgent management intervention or on-ground assessment, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Canberra.

Wildlife Health Australia (2018). National Wildlife Biosecurity Guidelines, September 2018 – version 1.0, Wildlife Health Australia, Sydney.

Wintle BA, Cadenhead NCR, Morgain RA, Legge SM, Bekessy SA, Cantele M, Possingham HP, Watson JEM, Maron M, Keith DA, Garnett ST, Woinarski JCZ & Lindenmayer DB (2019). Spending to save: what will it cost to halt Australia’s extinction crisis? Conservation Letters 12(6):e12682.

Wintle BA, Legge S & Woinarski JCZ (2020). After the megafires: what next for Australian wildlife? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 35(9):753–757.

Woinarski J, Murphy B & Legge S (2020). The impact of cats in Australia, research findings factsheet, project 1.1.2, National Environmental Science Program Threatened Species Recovery Hub, Canberra.

Woinarski JCZ (2018a). A framework for evaluating the adequacy of monitoring programs for threatened species. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 13–20.

Woinarski JCZ (2018b). The extent and adequacy of monitoring for Australian threatened reptile species. In: Legge S, Lindenmayer DB, Robinson NM, Scheele BC, Southwell DM & Wintle BC (eds), Monitoring threatened species and ecological communities, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 69–84.

Woinarski JCZ, Braby MF, Burbidge AA, Coates D, Garnett ST, Fensham RJ, Legge SM, McKenzie NL, Silcock JL & Murphy BP (2019). Reading the black book: the number, timing, distribution and causes of listed extinctions in Australia. Biological Conservation 239:108261.

Woinarski JCZ, Burbidge AA & Harrison PL (2015). Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(15):4531–4540.

Woods GM, Fox S, Flies AS, Tovar CD, Jones M, Hamede R, Pemberton D, Lyons AB & Bettiol SS (2018). Two decades of the impact of Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6):1043–1054.

Woodward E, Hill R, Harkness P & Archer R (eds) (2020). Our knowledge our way in caring for Country: Indigenous-led approaches to strengthening and sharing our knowledge for land and sea management, North Australian Indigenous Land and Sea Management Alliance & Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra.

World Economic Forum (2021). The global risks report 2021, 16th edn, World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland.

Wraith J & Pickering C (2019). A continental scale analysis of threats to orchids. Biological Conservation 234:7–17.

WWF-Australia (World Wide Fund for Nature) (2020). Google’s AI technology to identify animals impacted by bushfires, WWF-Australia, Sydney,


Yan D, Gellie NJC, Mills JG, Connell G, Bissett A, Lowe AJ & Breed MF (2020). A soil archaeal community responds to a decade of ecological restoration. Restoration Ecology 28(1):63–72.

Young RE, Manero A, Miller BP, Kragt ME, Standish RJ, Jasper DA & Boggs GS (2019). A framework for developing mine-site completion criteria in Western Australia, The Western Australian Biodiversity Science Institute, Perth.