Data and monitoring are essential to understanding interactions in the Antarctic region, particularly the large-scale, long-term changes and impacts due to climate change. The Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) leads Australia’s scientific program in Antarctica, which is undertaken on behalf of the Australian Government by Australian and international researchers. The research program covers physical and life sciences in the atmospheric, terrestrial and marine domains, as well as human biology and medical research. It also includes long-term observational activities, such as a network of meteorological facilities; space weather monitoring; seismic, magnetic and geodetic networks; and hydrographic and bathymetric mapping. The key areas of research include: environmental protection and management – research and monitoring to improve management of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, including climate change impacts, fisheries management and environmental remediation ice, ocean, atmosphere and Earth systems – understanding the impact of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Australia and the world, including high-latitude climate science, interpretation of past climate records to inform climate understanding, geophysical mapping, and atmosphere and weather studies human presence and activities in Antarctica – including polar medicine and human biology, space and astronomy, social sciences (policy and law), and pollution monitoring. The Australian Antarctic Strategic Plan, developed by the Australian Antarctic Science Council in 2019, directs research activities. The plan delivers key research outcomes outlined in the Australian Antarctic Strategy and 20 Year Action Plan. Although the AAD leads Australia’s scientific program in Australia, other key government initiatives are also contributing to long-term sustained observations of the Southern Ocean – in particular, the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS 2021). Assessment Effectiveness of Antarctic management 2021 No confidence Management of the Australian Antarctic Territory and protected areas is generally effective in protecting environmental values. Legend How was this assessment made Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on Linkedin Share this link Assessment World Heritage of subantarctic islands and protected areas under the Antarctic Treaty 2021 Adequate confidence 2016 2011 Management plans are in place and are reviewed regularly. Natural and cultural heritage values are being preserved. Assessment Land use and management 2021 Adequate confidence 2016 2011 Australia’s Antarctic environmental management policy for the Australian Antarctic Territory and its external territories in the subantarctic is consistent with Australia’s obligations under the Antarctic Treaty.