The Indigenous peoples of Australia. ‘Aboriginal’ is a term extensively used and widely accepted throughout Australia when referring to Aboriginal peoples and topics. Aboriginal peoples are the first peoples of mainland Australia, who self-identify in distinct societies, each one a distinct “people”, for example Yorta Yorta people. 

See also First Nations and Indigenous people. 

All organic material that accumulates above the ground in both living biomass and dead structures (e.g. trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, dead wood). 

Withdrawal of water from the environment for human use. 

A flat, relatively featureless bottom of the ocean at a depth greater than 2,000 metres. 

The process of becoming more acidic (i.e. lowering the pH). 

Soils tend to become acidic through natural leaching and weathering, and as a result of some agricultural practices such as loss of organic material and overuse of nitrogenous fertilisers.  

The ocean is becoming more acidic as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels rise and the concentration of dissolved CO2 in sea water increases, forming carbonic acid. 

Shifts (e.g. in behaviour, management practices, biology) in response to change that support survival and resilience; responses that decrease the negative effects of change and capitalise on opportunities. 

A systematic process for continually improving policies and practices by learning from the outcome of previously used policies and practices. 

In relation to environmental protection, how much of each ecosystem should be sampled to provide ecological viability and integrity of populations, species and ecological communities at a bioregional scale. The concept incorporates ecological viability and resilience of ecosystems for individual protected areas and for the protected area system as a whole (Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council 2010). 

(Indigenous); the rights and capacity of Indigenous people to speak for themselves and make their own self-determined choices. This includes representation, economic wellbeing, development and governance.  

A group of pollutants found in ambient air, usually at relatively low concentrations. They include heavy metals, and many types of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Some are known or suspected carcinogens, or are linked to other serious health impacts, including birth defects and developmental, respiratory and immune system problems. 

A body of air, bounded by meteorology and topography, in which substance emissions are contained. 

A sudden proliferation of algae (microscopic plants) that occurs near the surface of a body of water. Blooms can occur due to natural nutrient cycles, or can be in response to eutrophication or climate variations.  

See also eutrophication. 

Outdoor air.

Features, benefits and advantages of the built environment, including the character and appearance of building and works; proximity to shopping facilities; quality of infrastructure; and absence of noise, unsightliness or offensive odours. 

A type of water mass that forms at the bottom of the ocean around Antarctica. It is very cold, salty and dense. 

The area south of 60°S. 

Caused by human factors or actions. 

Cultivation of aquatic and marine species such as fish, crustaceans, shellfish and algae, predominantly for use as human or animal food. 

An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or loose material such as gravel, sand or silt; aquifers may provide well or bore water. 

Part or feature of the natural environment that provides environmental functions or services, and holds value over a period of time. 

The Australian continental margin; the submerged zone consisting of the continental shelf, slope and rise that separates the terrestrial portion of a continent from the deep ocean floor.