Cai S, Hsu PC & Liu F (2021). Changes in polar amplification in response to increasing warming in CMIP6. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters 14(3):100043.

Cai W, Santoso A, Wang G, Yeh SW, An SI, Cobb KM et al. (2015). ENSO and greenhouse warming. Nature Climate Change 5(9):849–859.

Campbell IB & Claridge GGC (2009). Antarctic permafrost soils. In: Margesin R (ed), Soil biology, vol 16, Permafrost soils, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 17–31.

Campbell IB, Claridge GGC & Balks MR (1994). The effect of human activities on moisture content of soils and underlying permafrost from the McMurdo Sound region, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 6(3):307–314.

Cannone N, Corinti T, Malfasi F, Gerola P, Vianelli A, Vanetti I, Zaccara S, Convey P & Guglielmin M (2017). Moss survival through in situ cryptobiosis after six centuries of glacier burial. Scientific Reports 7:4438.

Cárdenas L, Leclerc JC, Bruning P, Garrido I, Détrée C, Figueroa A, Astorga M, Navarro JM, Johnson LE, Carlton JT & Pardo L (2020). First mussel settlement observed in Antarctica reveals the potential for future invasions. Scientific Reports 10:5552.

Carey PW (2020). Is it time for a paradigm shift in how Antarctic tourism is controlled? Polar Perspectives (1):Jul.

Carrasco JF, Bozkurt D & Cordero RR (2021). A review of the observed air temperature in the Antarctic Peninsula. Did the warming trend come back after the early 21st hiatus? Polar Science 28:100653.

Carroll G, Hedley S, Bannister J, Ensor P & Harcourt R (2014). No evidence for recovery in the population of sperm whale bulls off Western Australia, 30 years post-whaling. Endangered Species Research 24(1):33–43.

Carson M, Lyu K, Richter K, Becker M, Domingues CM, Han W & Zanna L (2019). Climate model uncertainty and trend detection in regional sea level projections: a review. Surveys in Geophysics 40(6):1631–1653.

Castro MF, Neven JCL, Francelino MR, Schaefer CEGR & Oliveira TS (2021). Seabirds enrich Antarctic soil with trace metals in organic fractions. Science of the Total Environment 785:147271.

Cavan EL, Belcher A, Atkinson A, Hill SL, Kawaguchi S, McCormack S, Meyer B, Nicol S, Ratnarajah L, Schmidt K, Steinberg DK, Tarling GA & Boyd PW (2019). The importance of Antarctic krill in biogeochemical cycles. Nature Communications 10:4742.

Cavanagh RD, Melbourne-Thomas J, Grant SM, Barnes DKA, Hughes KA, Halfter S, Meredith MP, Murphy EJ, Trebilco R & Hill SL (2021). Future risk for Southern Ocean ecosystem services under climate change. Frontiers in Marine Science 7:1224.

CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) (1984). Report of the third meeting of the scientific committee, no. SC-CAMLR-III/11, CCAMLR, Hobart.

CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) (2011). Conservation measure 91-04 (2011): general framework for the establishment of CCAMLR marine protected areas, CCAMLR, Hobart.

CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) (2016). Conservation measure 91-05 (2016): Ross Sea region marine protected area, CCAMLR, Hobart.

CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) (2017). Krill fishery report 2017, CCAMLR, Hobart.

CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) (2019). Report of the thirty-eighth meeting of the scientific committee, no. CCAMLR-38/32, CCAMLR, Hobart.

CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) (2021a). CCAMLR statistical bulletin, vol 32 (dataset), CCAMLR, Hobart,

CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) (2021b). Fishery report 2020: Euphausia superba in area 48, CCAMLR, Hobart.

CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) (2021c). Fishery report 2020: Champsocephalus gunnari in subarea 48.3, CCAMLR, Hobart.

CEP (Committee for Environmental Protection) (2011). Non-native species manual, Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Cheng CHC, Liangbiao C, Near TJ & Jin Y (2003). Functional antifreeze glycoprotein genes in temperate water New Zealand nototheniid fish infer an Antarctic evolutionary origin. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(11):1897–1908.

Chittleborough RG (1965). Dynamics of two populations of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 16(1):33–128.

Chiuchiolo AL, Dickhut RM, Cochran MA & Ducklow HW (2004). Persistent organic pollutants at the base of the Antarctic marine food web. Environmental Science & Technology 38(13):3551–3557.

Chong CW, Pearce DA, Convey P, Tan GYA, Wong RCS & Tan IKP (2010). High levels of spatial heterogeneity in the biodiversity of soil prokaryotes on Signy Island, Antarctica. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(4):601–610.

Chown SL (2017). Antarctic environmental challenges in a global context. In: Dodds K, Hemmings AD & Roberts P (eds), Handbook on the politics of Antarctica, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, United Kingdom, 523–539.

Chu WL, Dang NL, Kok YY, Ivan Yap KS, Phang SM & Convey P (2019). Heavy metal pollution in Antarctica and its potential impacts on algae. Polar Science 20(Part 1):75–83.

Church JA, Clark PU, Cazenave A, Gregory JM, Jevrejeva S, Levermann A, Merrifield MA, Milne GA, Nerem RS, Nunn PD, Payne AJ, Pfeffer WT, Stammer D & Unnikrishnan AS (2013). Sea level change. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V & Midgley PM (eds), Climate change 2013: the physical science basis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, United States, 1137–1216.

Chwedorzewska KJ (2008). Poa annua L. in Antarctic: searching for the source of introduction. Polar Biology 31(3):263–268.

Clapham PJ & Scott Baker C (2018). Whaling, modern. In: Würsig B, Thewissen JGM & Kovacs KM (eds), Encyclopedia of marine mammals, 3rd edn, Academic Press, London, 1070–1074.

Clark GF, Marzinelli EM, Fogwill CJ, Turney CSM & Johnston EL (2015). Effects of sea-ice cover on marine benthic communities: a natural experiment in Commonwealth Bay, East Antarctica. Polar Biology 38(8):1213–1222.

Clark GF, Stark JS, Palmer AS, Riddle MJ & Johnston EL (2017). The roles of sea-ice, light and sedimentation in structuring shallow Antarctic benthic communities. PLOS ONE 12(1):e0168391.

Clark L (2003). Macquarie Island: a conservation assessment, unpublished report to the Australian Antarctic Division, Australian Antarctic Division, Kingston, Tasmania.

Clarke LJ, Robinson SA, Hua Q, Ayre DJ & Fink D (2012). Radiocarbon bomb spike reveals biological effects of Antarctic climate change. Global Change Biology 18(1):301–310.

Clausius E, McMahon CR & Hindell MA (2017). Five decades on: use of historical weaning size data reveals that a decrease in maternal foraging success underpins the long-term decline in population of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). PLOS ONE 12(3):e0173427.

Cleeland JB (2018). Factors that drive demographic change in a community of albatrosses, PhD thesis, University of Tasmania, Hobart.

Clem KR & Fogt RL (2015). South Pacific circulation changes and their connection to the tropics and regional Antarctic warming in austral spring, 1979–2012. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120(7):2773–2792.

Clem KR, Renwick JA & McGregor J (2018). Autumn cooling of western East Antarctica linked to the tropical Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123(1):89–107.

Coetzee BWT, Convey P & Chown SL (2017). Expanding the protected area network in Antarctica is urgent and readily achievable. Conservation Letters 10(6):670–680.

COMNAP (Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs) (2008). COMNAP fuel manual, version 1.0, COMNAP, Hobart.

COMNAP (Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs) (2017). Antarctic station catalogue, COMNAP, Christchurch.

COMNAP (Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs) (2019). Report on the extent of sewage treatment plant infestations across the Antarctic Treaty area: survey results, no. IP 38, Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Constable AJ (2002). The status of Antarctic fisheries research. In: Jabour-Green J & Haward M (eds), The Antarctic: past, present and future, Antarctic CRC research report #28, Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, 71–84.

Constable AJ, Melbourne-Thomas J, Corney SP, Arrigo KR, Barbraud C, Barnes DKA et al. (2014). Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota. Global Change Biology 20(10):3004–3025.

Convey P & Peck LS (2019). Antarctic environmental change and biological responses. Science Advances 5(11):eaaz0888.

Convey P (1996). Reproduction of Antarctic flowering plants. Antarctic Science 8(2):127–134.

Convey P, Chown SL, Clarke A, Barnes DKA, Bokhorst S, Cummings VJ et al. (2014). The spatial structure of Antarctic biodiversity. Ecological Monographs 84(2):203–244.

Convey P, Gibson JA, Hillenbrand CD, Hodgson DA, Pugh PJ, Smellie JL & Stevens MI (2008). Antarctic terrestrial life – challenging the history of the frozen continent? Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 83(2):103–117.

Cook AJ & Vaughan DG (2010). Overview of areal changes of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula over the past 50 years. The Cryosphere 4(1):77–98.

Cook AJ, Fox AJ, Vaughan DG & Ferrigno JG (2005). Retreating glacier fronts on the Antarctic Peninsula over the past half-century. Science 308(5721):541–544.

Cooke JG (2018). Antarctic blue whale: Balaenoptera musculus ssp. intermedia. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2018: e.T41713A50226962, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Cambridge, United Kingdom, accessed 11 May 2021,

Copson GR (1984). ANARE research notes, vol 18, An annotated atlas of the vascular flora of Macquarie Island, Antarctic Division, Department of Science and Technology, Kingston, Tasmania.

Corbett PA, King CK, Stark JS & Mondon JA (2014). Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica. Marine Pollution Bulletin 87(1–2):48–56.

Corsolini S, Ademollo N, Martellini T, Randazzo D, Vacchi M & Cincinelli A (2017). Legacy persistent organic pollutants including PBDEs in the trophic web of the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Chemosphere 185:699–708.

Corsolini S, Romeo T, Ademollo N, Greco S & Focardi S (2002). POPs in key species of marine Antarctic ecosystem. Microchemical Journal 73(1):187–193.

Cowan DA, Russell NJ, Mamais A & Sheppard DM (2002). Antarctic Dry Valley mineral soils contain unexpectedly high levels of microbial biomass. Extremophiles 6(5):431–436.